• Climate in the Region
• The Report
• Technical Background
• For Teachers
• Migrating Climates
• Water Resources
• Sense of Place
• Solutions where we Live
• Reducing our Emissions
• Managing our Response
• Ten Personal Solutions
Climate Change in Minnesota
Climate Change Impacts:
Lakes, Streams and Fish
Minnesota's famous waters draw millions of visitors each year. With over 150 fish species, and more than 5,000 lakes and 15,000 miles of fishable rivers, it's no surprise that Minnesota sells more fishing licenses per capita then any other state. Aquatic ecosystems, and species that depend on them, will be impacted by a warmer climate, land-use changess, and the introduction of invasive species.
Native aquatic plant and animal species will differ widely in their responses to changing water temperature and hydrology. Some will respond by adapting to warmer temperatures, or expanding their ranges northward, or seeking refuge in areas where temperatures and flow patterns remain suitable. Others will decline to extinction. Among the potential impacts of climate change with implications for lakes, stream, and fish in Minnesota are:
- A Change in the Distribution of Fish Species
Individual fish actively select and rapidly change living areas based on suitable temperatures, oxygen concentrations, and food availability. As water temperatures in the region increase, cold-water species such as lake trout, brook trout, and whitefish may decline dramatically, as cool-water species such as muskie and walleye, along with warm-water species, such as bluegill and smallmouth bass, expand their ranges northward. As a result of these changes, anglers may lose their preferred catch. To compensate for range and population changes, current stocking methods may need to be reevaluated.
- The Spread of Invasive Species
A changing climate will likely favor invasive species with generalized habitat and feeding requirements over native species with more specialized needs. The spread of non-native nuisance species will likely compound the impacts of climate change on Minnesota's aquatic ecosystems. Climate change is likely to permit some invasive speices, such as zebra mussels and common carp, to expand their range northward. Their movement, along with the introduction and spread of other invasive species and climate change, will fundamentally change native fish communities.
- An Increase in Summer Stratification
Stratification of lakes occurs when a warm surface layer of water develops over cooler, deeper water. A warming climate increases the duration of summer stratification in the deep lakes. This, in turn, makes frequent and larger "dead zones"—areas of water depleted of oxygen and unable to support life—more likely to occur. Persistent dead zones can result in toxic algal blooms; foul-smelling, musty-tasting drinking water; damage to fisheries; and massive fish kills—known as "summerkill".
- Loss of Winter Ice
Declines in the duration of winter ice on lakes are expected to continue. The loss of winter ice may be a mixed blessing for fish, reducing winterkill from oxygen deficits in shallow lakes but also jeopardizing reproduction of whitefish in the Great Lakes bays, where ice cover protects the eggs from winter storm disturbance.
- The Release of Nutrients and Contaminants
Lower oxygen and warmer temperatures promote greater microbial decomposition and subsequent release of nutrients and contaminants from bottom sediments. Phosphorus release would be enhanced, and mercury release and uptake by biota would also likely increase—exposing humans to higher mercury levels via fish consumption.
Loon -- US Fish and Wildlife Service, Art Weber.
Lake Superior Beach -- Dave Hansen, Minnesota Extension Service.
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