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January 13, 2011 

China and Reprocessing: Separating Fact from Fiction

Last week several U.S. media organizations reported that China made a “breakthrough in spent fuel reprocessing technology.” The original BBC story (which the news organization eventually replaced with a less sensational version) described the advance as “a new method of reprocessing irradiated fuel.” The current version says that the Chinese have “now perfected a procedure that will allow them to reprocess spent nuclear fuel.” A close examination of the Chinese television story that prompted these reports shows that Western journalists exaggerated China’s accomplishment. In reality, there was no “breakthrough.”

“Reprocessing” refers to extracting plutonium and uranium from fuel rods that have been used in a nuclear reactor. These recovered materials can be used to make new nuclear fuel. Last week’s stories suggested that China developed a new process that is different than the process used by other countries that reprocess spent fuel. The stories reported that this breakthrough would allow China to produce sufficient amounts of nuclear energy for thousands of years using China’s domestic reserves of uranium.
All of the reports were based on a 3-minute Chinese Central Television (CCTV) news broadcast on Chinese reprocessing that aired on January 3. Stories like this one touting progress are standard fare on Chinese television news in the first week of the new year.

The statements in the CCTV report about thousands of years of nuclear energy were hyperbolic extrapolations based on estimates of China’s proven uranium reserves and the imagined theoretical efficiencies of fast breeder reactors that no country has succeeded in commercializing, despite decades of effort and billions of dollars of government investments.

The broadcast described the progress made during 2010 at plant 404, a nuclear facility in Gansu province that China is building as a pilot-scale commercial reprocessing plant. While the broadcast described recent progress at the plant using the Chinese word for “major breakthrough” (重大突破) it was clear that it was using this term to describe something that was a first for China, not a breakthrough in reprocessing technology. This was emphasized repeatedly. The Chinese engineers interviewed in the segment explained that what was important is they did this completely on their own, with their own technology, and that their ability to extract uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel in a commercial pilot plant allows China to join several other nations that already have this capability.

And even this “first” has to be qualified. It was the first time spent fuel had been reprocessed at this commercial reprocessing plant, which experts believe China completed in 2004. (It is not clear why it took six years for reprocessing to start at the facility, but it seems to be typical of the rate at which China’s nuclear energy program has been progressing.) But China began reprocessing as part of its nuclear weapons program in 1968, so it is not a first for Chinese reprocessing.

There was only one sentence in the CCTV broadcast about what China actually did, which was produce “up-to-standard uranium and plutonium products” from spent fuel. This apparently means that it produced separated plutonium and uranium that were pure enough to make nuclear fuel.

Besides the technical difficulty and high cost of reprocessing and using plutonium to fuel reactors, commercial reprocessing generates large amounts of separated plutonium—which can be used to make nuclear weapons—and therefore increases the risk of nuclear proliferation and nuclear terrorism. For this reason, the U.S. government officially abandoned reprocessing in the 1970s.

Note: This UCS Factchecker is based on a piece that ran on the UCS Global Security Program’s blog,, on January 11.


The Union of Concerned Scientists puts rigorous, independent science to work to solve our planet's most pressing problems. Joining with citizens across the country, we combine technical analysis and effective advocacy to create innovative, practical solutions for a healthy, safe, and sustainable future.

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