Attributing Ocean Acidification to Major Carbon Producers

Rachel Licker, Brenda Ekwurzel, Peter Frumhoff

Published Dec 11, 2019

Read offsite

A peer-reviewed article published in Environmental Research Letters.

Using an energy balance carbon-cycle model, we find that emissions traced to the 88 largest industrial carbon producers from 1880–2015 and 1965–2015 have contributed ~55% and ~51%, respectively, of the historical 1880–2015 decline in surface ocean pH.


Licker, Rachel, Brenda Ekwurzel, S C Doney, S R Cooley, I D Lima, R Heede, and Peter Frumhoff. 2019. "Attributing Ocean Acidification to Major Carbon Producers." Environmental Research Letters 14, no. 12.

Related resources